ΰ ô :

νŸ Ҽ ؼ ã´

 

(2018-05-14)

 

1. ȭ ô ΰ ڸ Ұ ΰ?


Imagine there's no heaven

It's easy if you try

No hell below us

Above us only sky

Imagine all the People

Living for today

 

Imagine there's no countries

It isn't hard to do

Nothing to kill or to die for

And no Religion too

Imagine all the People

Living life in Peace

 

Imagine no Possessions

I wonder if you can

No need for Greed or Hunger

A Brotherhood of Man

Imagine all the People

Sharing all the world

 

You may say I'm a Dreamer

But I'm not the only one

I hope some day You'll join us

And the world will be as One

- John Lennon, ‘Imagine’

 

 

غ õ ٴ

غ ϴ

츮 ߹ؿ ̶

츮 Ӹ ϴ

(罺̴ õ̶ 츮 ӿ ִٰ )

غ

ؼ ư

(õ ƴϸ ӵǾ ̴ ̴ ͯ ؿ)

 

غ

غ ʴϴ

׿  ͵, ؼ ׾  ͵

׸ ׷

(1980 ֿ ӽź 踦 л Ʈ ֿ ؼ ΰε л)

غ

ȭο

(ȣ Ͼ ȭɳ ϴ ñ ״ dzڴ ȭ κ Ĺ ϸ鼭 )

 

غ

غó

Ž彺 ʿ䵵 ָ ʿ䵵

ΰ ڸ

( Ǹ 뵿 Ἲ 縦 ı̸ η ϰ ıؿ Z ̰ η Ĺ, ¸ 20 ƴ 200 ƴ 2000 Ѱ ִ ̼ ó ΰ Ÿŵ  󸶳 ູ? þƿ Saint Francisco 10 ־ ʿ䰡 ٵ...” )

غ

ü ϰ ִ

 

Ƹ 󰡶 ϰ

׷ 󰡴 ƴ϶ϴ

(ǻ ƴ϶ ȸ μ ȸ Che Guevara ڰ , ÿ Ұ ޲, Martin Luther King Jr Դ ֽϴ ϰ ൿ)

մϴ 츮 Բ ϸ

׷ ϳ ǰ

(ұ ϳ 谡 ԵǾִ-ڰ۰-ϳ ټ̸ ټ ϳ- -̶ ϰ . õü ٿ -Cosmic Dust )

 

ϴ ˼۵ ϳ غԴϴ. ó 鸮 ִ(In-Sight-ful) Դϴ. ġ ʸӸ , ϴ Դϴ.


 

: ̴µ () Ѿ ְڽϱ?

: ׷ Ѿ ( а輱 Ѿٰ ٽ dzʿ)1)

 

 

80% ȸ ϴ ݽ 簡 Ͼ ׸ ȭ ϴ ε ϰ Դϴ.


ó ѱ ȸ ʹ ɻ ϳ ȭ ϴ Ҹմϴ. ׷ݸ -ȥ- ϴ ް Ǵ Ҿ̶ дܱغ̶ ϸ Դϴ. б лȸ ϼ б ڴ ûٿ ΰǾٴ±. ׷ ܸ ٴ Դϴ.2)


õ ̼ İ ΰɿ ̷ο ÿ ǰ ִ ̸ 4 ؼ ҷŰ ֱ⵵ մϴ. Ƴα 븸 ƴ϶ ϴ ̵ ȭ ȭȭ Դϴ. ׷ ߿ ܼƮ Voice Fishing ó ̷ ٷ ִ. ΰɿ 4 ں ֵϰ ִ ΰ ΰ ǽ մϴ. ΰ ̹ ϻȰ Ѹ ִ  ں ֵϰ Ƿ ׷ ΰ 뵿 ھƽ ̱⸸ ǹԴϴ.


Ǹ κ ؼ ΰ ϰ .3) ȸ 뵿 2003 10 2011 100 2013 130 ִٰ 2015 100 2016 87 پ ߼ ֽϴ. ڻϴ 뵿ڵ þ ȸ簡 ɸڵ ؼ ذå̶ ڻ 쿡 ؼ Ʈ ġس ̾. ڱ-ּ ü ٽ Z 뵿 ȣ ý Ż뿡 4) н Ż 1 ߰ 5) Ѽ ں 뵿 ϻ Ȳ ݴϴ. ܰ 󸶳 ٸ?


߱ 쿡 ߴ. ޴ QRڵ ĵ ޴ ֹ â Էϸ ´ٴ Դϴ. ΰ ǻ ȭؼ ް ǻ翡 뺸ϴ DZ⿡ ϴ Դϴ. ù 뵿ڸ ʰ ϴٴ Դϴ. ׸ Ϻ 忡 κ Ѵٴ Դϴ.


ں õ( ) ӱݰ 뼺 ߱մϴ. ׷ ŭ ƿ 뵿ڸ ʴ´ٸ . ۵ б Carl Benedikt Michael Osborn 2013 9 20 ̱ ڸ ̸ ǻ α׷ӵ ׷ ̶ ϰ ֽϴ. 6) α׷ӵ ϰ ִ ڰ ”(Self-correcting) ڵ Ͽ н ִ  ֱ⿡ ׷ ° ϴٴ Դϴ. ׷ ̷ 1929 Ȳ  ⿩ John M.Keynes 1930 츮 ڳ ô ɼ Ǿ̶ ߽ϴ. ö ȭ 50 Ǿϰ ˴ϴ.


 ռ Karl Marx ں ںǰ ϸ鼭 ں (Һں/ں ) ׿ Ǵ . ׷ 10% 谡 ϰ ִµ 202525% å Ǹ ϰ ֽϴ. ڵ ð $25ӿ ؼ κ $8̸ ȵ Դϴ. ǻͷ 󸮾 ġ ռ ߰ϴ ֽϴ. ȣڿ ũ üũ ûҸ κ óϰ . ΰ ҿܰ ȮǾ ִ ô뿡 MIT ο κ ׷ Synthia Breazeal ũ ݵ ó ijŻ ݵ ȸ κ ߽ϴ. ǻ 18 þٴ Ģ ϸ ̷ ȭϰ.


ۿ ں ֵϴ ΰ 4 ߱ Ǿ Ȳȭ ϰ ΰ -(Techno Science) ̿ νŸ ȸΰ غ ҷ AI ȭ Ȱ ׸ Allende ĥ ȸ ǿ ̿ Cybersyn ü 캸 â ׸ а ΰ غ մϴ. ̿ ռ ι ټ ѱε ϴ ̶ 忡 ó 2018 ѱȸ  Ȳ ó ִ ϰ մϴ.


 

2. 縦 ѷ


ó Ȳ 2094 г 200ֳ Ǵ ٶ󺻴ٸ 19 ( : ̱ ƽþ ħ)ô뿡 ؼ ȯ(Ү) ô ?


ù°, ѹݵ ̶ ڱ ӿ ִٴ 19 ݺ-ݽĹ ̴ ߱ 뱹()  ΰ? 20⸦ ̱ Ⱑ ƴ϶ ҷ ”(Moshe Lewin) 21 ߱ ִ.7) ̸ڱ μ ġŻ¸  2016-2017 к 2018-04-27 ȸ ٰ ѹݵ ȭ м ɼ ũ. ׷ ׷ ߱ ֿ . - ü ߷ ں ߱ θ־ θ־ ̸ ߱ 뵿- ع ѹݵ 뵿-߿ 濡 ũū ĥ ̴. Ϲ α 10 õ簡 1 ִٴ α 5õ ´ٸ õ ڴ 500 ݸ ߱ α 14 ´ٸ 14000 ̳ ȴ. 米 ġ ̴ 28 ̶̻ Ȯ ̴. Z Ʈ ߱ ۳ 4б⿡ 0.8% ۿ Ǹ Ÿ Ϸʶ ִ.8)


ϰ ٹ⸦ ü. Ȯغ. ѱ ҷñ ö ̱ ö ʾ 19581991ٹ⸦ ġߴµ 1967⿡ ź 950 ߴ.9) ҷ ٹ⸦ ġ ٴ Ѵٸ ѹݵ ٹ ڰ иϴ. ׸ ѹ Ʒ ų Ǵµ ѹ̶ -߱ Ȥ -ҷ յ Ʒ ִ°?


°, 19 Ȳ õ߷ ȱ ݼȸǷ ϰ ֵ п ؿ ־. ̸׸ Ž ŸŵǾ ()̶ μ ì° ϸ Դ ϱ . ׸ ̵ 븮 ε εϴ õ 츮 ̿ źϰ ִ.10) ݼȸǷ (: ) ̷ źѴ. ޾ 濡 ̸ ݰ ׷ Ƶ 뿩 𸣰 븩ϱ⸸ ް й Ͽ ã ̰ â ִ ̶ ϰڼ?” ȸ ٰ ȱ Ʒ ǰ Ǿ ϸ ?” źϰ ִ.11)


ó ̿ 󸶳 ٸ? ûȭ() 䱸ް ִ ǰ ź ̸ ϰ Ⱥ ° ̶ ġ 弭 ׷ -ݹ ӿ ǻ簡 Ⱒϴ° ϸ Ŀü Anonymous(͸ ) ǿ ϰ 䱸ϰ ִ װ 뵿ڵ !


к̶ ï ݱ ϴ ͺ ߿ 1987 뵿-ù ̷ ü  ؼ ̷ ѹݵ ʸ ã Ȳ ߻ ֵ Ǿ ϴ ̴. ں ̱ ǿ ؼ ȸǷκ ںǷ ϰ ִ ̶߱ ο ʰ뱹 ȭ-Ȯǰ ִ. ̷ Ȳ 19 ϴ̴(Ҭ) μ Ҹ Ҹ κ ϸ ֳ ôѴ(ϭ ) ġ ȣ Ͽ ݺ- 翡 ߾ ó Ȳ .


°, Z ̾ Һ ߼ ȭִ պ ҹ ϰ ۰ ׸ õ Ÿó ϴ (---)밭 ̴µ å ĽýƮ ް 簡 Ǵ ̸ 1 ߴ ȸ ϰ ִ Ȳ ɰ Ⱑ ƴѰ?


ġ- -- ο ߴ. - ô ޾Ƶ ִµ ذ Ǹ ʿ ۾ Ǽ κ Ƿ ְ ޴”, չ ̶ . “̶ 3 и ü ȸϰڴٴ ޾Ƶ ִ. (ĽýƮ) ѱ(ű )׸ <Ϻ> -Ϻδ ڱ ˰ - ġ иٷ װ̴. Ư ѱȸ ȭŰ ϰ ϴ ı µ ׻ ġ ٷ Ѵ Ѵ. ̷ - ں θ־ ü ̶ 㱸 깰̴. 뵿 ں ʾƵ ִ ΰ? ԰ ΰ? ÿ ġ̸ ȭ ΰ ؾѴ.


̹ ߴٽ к̶ ν ȭ Ѵ. к г ġ̼ ȯų ħ ȭ.12) 119 1 ΰ ǿ ̶ 2 ظ ϴ ȭ̴. ׷ δ 󸶳 ȭ ôŰ ִ°? ĺ ź ()߰Ǹ () ʾҴ°? û ڸ øν ذϰڴٴ å ó ȸ ȭ õ õں ֿ ü պ ʰ ȸϴ ̴.


2ɿ 13( ) պ-ȯ ؼҰ н 巯 ϸ鼭 ٰ ˸ ϴ ()” ǰ ִ.13) Ѻ 汸 . “ ϸ鼭 ̰ Ű д Ҽۿ ؼ ݵ ȥ ̴”( ).


Z ۾ȯ Ǿ ߺ Ȯ Ըϰ ڷḦ 䱸 Z Ƿ źϰ ڿδ Ƹ Z κ Z ִ° ϸ к ̶翬 ؾ õ ں ư <Ϻ> 뵿ȯ ع ϸ ٸ £ Ҹ Ƿ η Ǵ Z ԰ǰ 뺯ϰ ִ. ̻ΰ? “  ʰڴ ĽýƮ ̺ö ڵ аŸ 濵ڶ ׷ ı ȹåϸ Zڴ Ѱ TF ߴٴ Ͽ 巯 ?14) ̷ -ҹ õ 濵ڵ鿡 ӿ䱸 ޾Ƶ ʰ ִ !


2018 뵿- ̸ڱ ݵ 10Ӹ ƴ϶ 1987 ü Ѿ, ĽýƮ Ϻ ѱ ٴȭ ̸ غϴ ȭ-ġ- ü ϰ ݵ Ϸ ؾ ȯ⿡ ִ ̴. “к ո (?) Ƕ Ʋ , ϼ  ü ںǶ, “ΰ 鿡 ŸǸ ΰٿ â θ, ܰ迡 ü ̴.


̱ ̱ ħ ʴ´ 츮 ʴ´”! 2016 10 2017 3 10 źٿ ̸ ο 1700 ߵ  ߰ſ ڱ 缺 Ȯ Ȯϴ ġ- ̼ ϰ ǥ 뷡.


׷ ȸ ȭϰ ŵ ϴ 鿡 ޼ 𸣰 ϶ 汸 ϰ 캴쿡 ٶ ٰ ƴ Ǯ ( ڨ) 汸 ϰ ȯ Ǿ õϸ û ϴ ٷ ̰ óԵ ġ ٴ”(ذ ) Ѵٰ ȿ ġ ιó þ ȭ dz ȸ ڹ źϸ е ұ䰡 츮 տ ó ?


̷ ΰٿ - ü Ƿ س -ġ ̼ (Skilled Means) ʼҰϴ. ׷ ٷ 2018 ź 200ֳ Karl Marx ̴. 2005 BBC 3400 縦 Ʋ öڸ ϴ 1 ι ٷ ̿ ں(Das Kapital-Capital) Į ũ . 27.93% ؼ 2 ݿ ġ ϴ 12.67% ̺ ̾.


к ũ þ߸ Ǿ 뵿- ̼ ڱ ü ڱ ൿ 缺 ų ǰ -ܰ к Ȱ ư ̴!


 

3. νŸ ȸΰ?”(Why Socialism)


ƿ ޸

¾ ϴ ϴ Ʒ

¾̿ 巯 ʰ ּ

̹α 巯 ʵ

ó ſ

Ű ǰ ϰ ־

Ը ٸ鼭

߸ ϴ ǰ?

ã ٷ̾

ȥڰ Ǿ ȥڰ Ǿ

縷 ó ־

κ ־ ־

ſ

ھ

ð

ǹ ̿

ó ͵

߸ ϴ ǰ?

ã ٷ̾

ȥڰ Ǿ ȥڰ Ǿ

縷 ó ־

߸ ϴ ǰ?

ã ٷ̿

ȥڰ Ǿ ȥڰ Ǿ

縷 ó ־

- Ƽ ȣ, ‘Donde Voy’ ߸ ϳ?

 

ѿԼ ΰ ϰ ȴ. ״ ڽ ü ؼ ڽ ȸ ƴ. Ҹϴٰ ʴ´. Ȯ ִ. ׿ ι η ȣڵ ڵ̶ ”.


νŸ 5ֳ⿡ ߵ.18) װ (̽ ) ޾Ƶ̸  Ҵ ֽÿ. ׿ ؾ߿. ׷ . ׷ װ ޾Ƶδٸ 츮 ó ̿.” 1952 ̺ ߿ ̱ 簡 ũ νŸο ̴. Ÿ 20 ι ġ νŸ ̷ ι̾. ĽýƮ 屺 ݴ, ҷ M. Rostropovich(츮 ̾ 念 ) ÿ ַ ֺ ̷ Pablo Casals ׸ ̷ ߴ. “Ȯ ״ ̴. ׷ ״ ̻ Ѿ ΰ ̴...”19) ̷ η ǥ ȸ 캸.

 

3.1.-ȸ 鿡 ƴ ȸǶ ؼ ظ ٶ ϱ? ~ ϱ? Żⱸ ִ ϱ? (99~100) κ.


νŸ ں ȯ ϰ ִ. -ġ( ġ ٸ -Clausewiz)-(ȭ) ȣۿϰ ָ ˱ϰ ִ. 츮 ΰ ()ܰ迡 ִٸ鼭 ȸ Ȯ ؼ ΰ ܰ踦 Ѿ ư ̱ ̷ ȸ ȸ ؼ ִ ǰ ϰ ִ. ׸ ȸǴ ȸ- ǥ Ѵ ں ü ΰ(Homo Economikus) ϰ ִ. ̷ ΰ谡 ٷ ں ҿ.


ũ -ö ں ü ϴ 4 ҿܸ ϰ ִ.16) 깰κ ҿ-ڿκ ҿ-ڽκ ҿ-ΰκ ҿ. Ư ڽκ ҿܶ ΰ(뵿) ڽ ɵ-Դ , ô , Ȥ ü ڽ - ־ ο ൿ ϰ ݸ, ΰ ɿ ־ Ұ ”. ׸ 簡 ̹Ҽ ڽ ǥϰ Ǹ ϰ Ǹ ׷ ҿ ȮǸ ҿܵ ϰ ȴ....׷Ƿ ° Ž ӿ Ұ ȴ....뵿ڴ ϱ ؼ ̴.̷ Erich Fromm ? Herbert Marcuse ΰ -Ų.


ִ  뵿ڴ ڽ ԰ 鼭 ϴ ǰ ʴ ο ſ ٰ Ȱ̶ . ״ ̷ ǰ ϻ ü. “ ƺ. ̰ ƴ϶...ܿ Ե ٸ”. “ڳ ڽ ϴ ϳ. ̷ ӿ ״ ҿ īӰ ڰϰ ִ. “ ˰ ?... ΰ . ” װ ٶ Ʋ Ѿ ùٸ ΰ Ȯ νϰ ش. “ õ ¢´....׷ ϴ. . ...ϷϷ ư Ϳ ° Դϴ. ƴ϶ Ÿ ϴ....λ ...Դ ش ƴ մϴ, ׷ ׷Ե ƳⰡ Ƴ׿. ...ѱ 鿡 ִٴ ȭ. ...” “ ̴ϴ.... ƹ ص ϴ , , ׿.... ٽ ġ ̸ ġ ư ݱ ϴ. ׷ ϰ ҳ ܸ ̶ ְ ׷Զ λ ʹ ϰ ѽ  ʹ... Ƽ, ... ϴ Ƽ...”.


ѷ ֿ Humanism Ӽ . ں б Louis Althusser ٽɰ ҿ(Alienation) ں ٰ . Grundrisse ں ̸ ҿ е .17)


 

 

3.2. ΰ, ȸ ̸ ȭ


νŸ ΰ ȸ Ѵ. ̷ ȸ ڿ Ѵ. ΰ ȸ ȭ(Ensemble)” Ͱ ̴. ߿伺 ʴ ü ʵ̴ ȯ-ȸ-ȸ 뿡 ϰ ִ. ̷ ġŷ ̸ ó ȸ ʴ´׸ ں ̶ ”(TINA: There Is No Alternative) ȣ ô ִ ƴ .


νŸ ̷ ùٸ ϴ ұ () ̴. ó ȸ ǿ ԰ ڵ ΰ ̷ ϴ ̴. θ ְ ݴ ο и ִ. ȸ ̸ ȸ ̴. νŸ ϴ ȸ ڿ ִ, ſ õ 뵿 뵿 븦 ؼ κ Ư  Ŀ ޾Ƶ鿩 ̴. ׷ ̷ 츮 Ḣ ϰ ųȭϱ⸸ ϴ ̴.


Ŀ丮 鼺 ⸧̸ ݰ ׸ ǰ ˴ 鼺 Ƕ ̴.20) ý ұ ұ ŽϿµ κ ε ̷ ġ ǰ ־.


̷ б ʴ ȸü ŽĹ ں ü Ѵ. “ŽĹ -ܱ ǿ ӵǾ Ӹ ƴ϶ ȭ å ߿ Ϻημ Ĺλ ȭ е Ĺ -غ Ȳκ Եȴ. ع () (ڻ) µǸ鼭 â(ͯ) ڵ Ѿ ȸ ȭ ں ȭ ׸ ں ü ϻ ҿ 鿡 ؼ ġ ġ Ǹ ұ ⺹ ұ ְν ȭ ּ Ѵ.


ʵ ȸ 캸. ڸí 츮 Ѵ. ȣ Ǹ ӱݰ Ǹ Ӹ ƴ϶ 񿡰Ե ѾѴٰ ߴ. ư ¼ ߸ ƴ϶ 󿡴 ̷ ӱ 鼺 ָ ô޷ ϼҿ źϰ ִ.21) װ ϰ ´ 󸶳 ΰ?! ָ ȣϴ ĽýƮ ȣ ڸ ó ƴѰ?!


ȫ ӴϿ γڵ ؼ ϱü ѱۺ ° ϸ κΰ ħϴ й ̶鼭 ϰ ߴ. ŸӸӽ Ÿ ó ѿ ´ٸ #MeToo ع(Feminism) ? ׸ ָ װ 8 ϴµ 7° å 簡 Һи ϸ κ () ۿ ϰ ִ. ó ü ̷ ? ÿ ڵ µ Ѵ. ڶϷ -̱ -Ƿ¿-縮 ߱ ׸ ڱ⸸ Ѵ. ϴ ش ? ̷ غå Ǵ й µ ٷ (κܱ). 򹫻 ٸ η ޾Ƶδٴ ̴.22)


ϴ νŸ â νķ ̷. (ڴ) Ÿ ȸڷμ κ 踦 ǥϰ ϴ ŭ (Realist)'μ Ÿ. ״ ҿκ ΰ ο ߸μ ̷ ϴ ŭ μ Ÿ. ׸ ״ ̷ ݰκ ǥ ִ ѿ ׷ ̷ ٰŸ ϴ ŭ Ÿ”.23) -νŸ νķ ȸǿ ϴ ̷ ϰ ִ. “ϰ ڿ Ȥ Humanismμ ׷ а ϴ ”.24)


̷ -νķ ȸ-а öгƮ ̷ ִ.  п ؼ п ִ.25) -νķ ȸ-а - а ģȭ ϴ ұ ̷. “ ׸, Ͱ ª , ...װ͵ ϻ̸ װ͵ (Reality) ƴ϶ 迡 ̴”.26)


 

3.3. 츮 ô õ


νŸ 츮 ô Ⱑ ȸ 谡 ϰ ִ. 1946 Ⱑ ó ȭ ӵǰ ִ. Oxfam 2017 87% 1% ϰ ִٴ ̴.27) 鵵 ϴ -ȥ- ϴ ̵ Ȳ ٷ ̷ ƴѰ? ׷ ŭ ҾȰ ܷο ̷ ִ. ռ ں ҿٷ װ̴. ̱ εμ õϰ ܼ ϰ ª 轺 ȸ ؼ ǹ̸ ã ϰ ִ. νŸ Ǹ . ̸ ̴. “̶ Ŵ ǽƮ. ̶ ϸ ƹ ǹ̰ ǿ Ұ ̴ÿ  ͵ ȣ迡 ¡ ľ ϴ ̴. ̷ ľ ϰ 㹫 θ ̴.” “...鿡 ̷ < > и ؽŰ ̴. ô õ ٸ Ǵ Ư¡ ٷ ̷ ̴. ̷ ׸ ΰ ̹ Ѵ. ׷Ƿ ׷ ſ ħ ߽ ȸ . ... ⿡ ߿ ̷ ϱ ׷ ޾Ƶ̴ 鿡 װ ϰ ֵ ϴ ̴.28) νŸ ̷ ߾ ̷ ִ. 빫 ӿ ϸ 㹫 -- ü ȭ -ΰ - α---п--ȭ -- پ ü”(Identity)  ϴ Ű Ų ο ν ǹ̸ ߱ ִ.


츮 ڴ Ϻ ص ο ϸ ο ׹ ε̴.

̷ ̸̼鼭 ϱ ̴. 㹫ϱ ǹ ִ 浵 ִ ϰ Ƹٿ ̴. “ ִ ؾ ̷ ̶ ִ. “ϴð ٶ Ư ûö ϴ ̷ο 踦 ϻ ڿ ó ̵ ̵ ̷ ǿ ϱ ̴. ׷ ŭ Anthropocene 뿡 ߴϴ. Anthropocene ô ΰ Ȱ Ư ں ʷ ĺȭ ο ô뱸 ̴.29) Ƶ ٴ ġ ħ ޻ Ʒ ̽ ”( )30)̶, ׸ ġ ְ ̶ νŸ ߵ 㹫 Ѿ ι ⸮ ̴.


νŸ ұ߸ ٿ ָؾѴ.31) ұ δ ϰ Ʒδ ߻ ȭŲ”(߾ϴ ) õ ˱Ѵ. ׸ ռ Ͽ Ƽ ϳ ӿ ִ ľϸ 繰 ü ü ü ”( ) Ѵ. ̷ ö ڿ ߰߰ Ȯ ϴ ̴. ڿ ü-̶ Ҹ ĵ ũ  Ұ ̴. ׷ ̷ ȸ ϴ ϱ? ٷ ϴ ̴. ̾߸ ٴٷ ̴. غ ִµ 浵 â ƴ϶ ڽ (٥) 8 (Գ) õϿ(٥) Ž忡 () ̿ϸ()  ̸ Ÿ ִ() Ȳ(٥)  ִ ̴.


ֱ ģ ȭ ȭϸ鼭 ùε ϰ 鵵 ˺ ̷ ݹߴ. ÿ å̶ ϴ ұ ο ߸ Ǵܿ. ̷ ̼ 忡 ؼ ǽ ۿ ̴. 518 Ÿ ָ ʿϸ 鿡 ϶ ߴ Һؾ մϴ. Ʈ 屳 η ı ɿ ؼ  屳 ϱ⵵ ǿ ָؾմϴ. ̷Ŀ óฦ ϴ ͵ ڶ κó ̱ ڶ ϴ µ ׷ Ȳ ׷ ۿ ʴ ԰ ̴. ̷ ոȭ ǽ ۿ ˺μ ġ ڶ ϴ(Φ) - ۿ ϴ . ׷ ˺ ƾ ŷ ׿---ɿ ʴ ƹ¦ ΰ ǽ ؼ ִ 浵μ ̴. “ǽ Կ ϴ 㹫”. ̷ ΰ гα ֺ ̸ 縮к ʴ ̴.

̷ ǽ 㹫ǿ Ī ̷ Ƿο ̴. ϻ̵ ̵ ټ ̷ ش ε̴. νŸ ȸ-ΰ ϴ ұ ߵ ̷ ش 㹫ǿ ƴ϶ ݰ() δ س() ں .


 

3.4. ںǶ ׸ ȸ ü


νŸ ٿ ں ȸ ̸ ׷ ȸǽ ұڰ Ǵ ں ̶ Ȯ ϰ ִ. ° ϴ Ȳε ü 10 ֱ ڽ 뵿 ں ޿ ̶ ӱݴ ؼ ǰó Ǹν ؾϴ 뵿- ź ڰ 꼳 ־ ں ½Ű ں ߰ ȭϴ ̴. ̷ ں ٽ νŸ ϰ ִ. ں -뵿 ٽ 뵿ڰ (׿ 뵿ð ׿ġ )” 뵿ڰ ޴ ں 뵿 ׿뵿 ϴ ׿ġ Ѵٴ ȹ Ȯ ϰ ִ. û ƸƮ 뵿 ü ȭ ʴ Ϻ Ȳ ̸  ù ȸ ༭ ü 뵿 ο ʴ ϵ ִ. “â (?) ı ׸ û ׸ ȭ Ͽ ϴ θ ⸦ Ѵٸ ϴ ĽýƮ 󸶳 - ʴ°? , ڵ ٶ ʴ , ̶ ػϴ ° ݴ ĽýƮ ̸鼭 ִ, ȣ ټ ָ ׷ ĽýƮ ű ȣϴ ¸ Ź--TV-ͳ ؼ ° ϰ ִ Ȳ νŸ ǽð ϰ ?!


Ư ָؾ 뵿ڵ ġ ν ó 뵿-߿ ΰ ̸ ü Ȳ ġڴٰ ϰ ġϰ ִ Ȳ ϰ ִ Ȯ ְ ִ.


׿ġ 뿡 г ϰ 꼺 ׸ ¿ ġ ϴ ӱ ޴ 뵿 - ġ 缺 ų ϸ ׷ ڱ ü ԰ ִ ൿ κ ԵǴ ̸ ׷ ŭ ȸ-ġ-ȭ ǽ ұ ϴ ƴ . ٷ ׷⿡ 뵿ܰ ̴! ó ̰ б ߸ü (Acquisitive) ϵ ڳ ̰ Ƿ° ϴ ϰ ?


νŸ ȣ ϴ ġ ̿Ϸ ̶ ߿ ġ Ȯ ϰ ִ. ع ĽýƮ ȭο ƴ϶ ٸ Ʒõ 缺ؿԴ. “Į , ź ؿ. ǾҾ!”<Ÿӽ> 1953 6 13“X ϵ ù Һ̶ ڿ ҹ äϴ ϳ ٸ ϳ ϴ ̴ ǿ ģ Ǵ ۺξ < Ʈ> X شڶ ùε X ( Ⱥ ȸ Ȥ Ͽ ̱ Ȱ ȸ) Ѵٱ⺸ Ѵٸ...츮 ̴ ǰ ǰ ؾѴ.32)


ѱ ̳ 캴-±, нǷ ϳ ڸ ϴ , ǻ簡 㿡 Ϸ Ѻȣ ȸ ݹϴ ǻȸ ȸ ϴ ϱ? νŸ ϰ ִ. “ ǥ ൿϰ ϴ ε Ʒ ǾѴ. ׷ ε ü ⿩Կ ڽ 밡 ְ ̸ٰ Ѵ.” ̶ ֳ ĽýƮ ű п ֵѸ ʰ å а ϱ? Ϲ 쿡 44%ӿ ؼ 쿡 72% ̸ Ұ33) չٴ Ͼ ʴ°? ̴. ̷ η ̶ּ () ϴ ƴ . ̷ κ ϴ Ǵ Ұ Ҵ. 1 ûʹ û ִ Ȱ ι μ ݴ ̷ ּμ ִ ƴѰ?! ׸ - Ϲ Ѿ ϱ? ѱ ׷ ʴٴ Ǵ̴. ټ () ƴѰ? ǻ--ְ 濵ڵ ̷ б ƴ϶ ΰ ȭοϱ? νŸ ߽ϰ ڽ õ ִ, “ ϰ ൿϴ ȭο ΰ̶ ŸŸ 汸 ̸. Ҹ ʴ ó/׹ ɸ ʴ ٶó/뿡 ʴ ó/ ó ȥڼ ”.34) ȸ信 ϴ 縮 кϴ ϰ ׿ ְ ൿϴ ϴ ȭο ΰ ұ 󿡴 ü () (: Sunyata) ϴµ ⼳ ʻ Ͻð αǿ αǿ Ҹ ϼ αȸ â ⿩Ͻ ؽ ڹѴ.


ʰ ΰ ϱ . ׷ ϸ鼭 ϱ 󸶳 ? ܼ ҹϱ . ׷ ϸ鼭 ܼ ҹϱ 󸶳 ? ڽ ⸸ϸ鼭 õ̱ . ׷ ڽ ⸸ 鼭 õ̱ 󸶳 ?  ڸ ʰ ϱ . ׷  ڸ ϸ鼭 ׿ 󸶳 ?...ɰ ǰ ǰ ϱ . ׷ ɰ ϸ鼭 ǰ ϱ 󸶳 ?”35) ̼() ̸ Ȥ å ؼ ô  ݽ ϴ ٷ ؽ ̴. 17 ΰ ؼ Ϻΰ ٷ ڹ()̴.


Դ б ַ , ׸ ̴. ̷ л ٷν л , ׸ ڽŰ ıŲ”. ϰ ̱ л ϰ ϴ ƴϴ. ѱ  ٴ Žϰϴ ȣ ϴ ⿹(Art)" ϰ ִ ϱ?


ѱ Ȳ Ưϰ ڱ ֵ нμ ؼ ڽ ɷ°߰ ΰ ؿԴ. б ׸ ϱ ߱⿡ -- б å ϰ ϴ ҿ Ұߴ. б ڽ ðǥ © ִ 鼭 ó ǿ ߴ, . ڱ ֵ н ߱ İ ϴ ̴. “  Ǹ ϵ ·ο”( ). ͳݰ Mobile Phone̶ Stupid Phone ô뿡 ȸ̸ Ƿ ൿ ô뿡 ϻ ൿ̴. “ȥ ȥ ׸ ȥ Mobile Phone Smartϴ. ս ʿ ȹ Ƿ. ׷ ں Algorithm ؼ ̿ڵ鿡 Big Data ؼ â⿡ Smart ϰ ȰѴ. ׻ΰ? ̱ ִ û Edward Snowden Ȱ ̱ 4 ıϴ Ⱥ(NSA: National Security Agency) ϴ ൿ ߴ, NSA 1943 ̱ “Brusa Comint" ø ϴ üϸ鼭 ɺ(GCHQ) Բ ̱ ⱸ ࿡ ȣ-ij- ׸ ϰ Բ Ϻ ؾѴ. ׸ ü ̿ؼ Ÿ ؼ ° ȸ Allendeθ ûϰ ־.36) ׷ ǰ ִ ð ƿ δ AI Stafford Beer ޾ 뵿 ο й ϴ Cybersyn Ʈ ϰ ־. ҷ 𵨰 ٸ .


̷ ѱ ܰ ƴ ̹ ϴ. ⹫ ı Ӽ 巯 ʴ°?! ֱ ùൿ(λ )  ؼ ҹ 䱸 ʾҴ,37) AI ǿ ̿ ġ ʴ´. ֱ 30 ΰ ڿ κ 50 ̻ б (KAIST) ü ȭ ΰ ̿ϴ ߰ȹ ݴϴ ǥ, ī̽Ʈ ȹ öȸϴ ߻ߴ.38)


޶̶(Dalai Lama: ο ٴ) ̻ ü ȸ ü ϰ ִ.39) -й-üǰ âϰ ִ ó ѹݵ ִ, Ұ ٴ ϴ ڼ ΰٿ ΰ ̴.

 

Ұ

йų

ָ ߵ

밨 ڵ ʴ پ.

ƹ ̶

ƹ ִ

̴

ֳϸ ް ó ڵ

ʻ ⸦ ϰ ߱

ٴٸ ̸ ؼ

- Cervantes 40)

 

<>

1. <Ѱܷ> 2018-04-28.

2. <Ϻ> 2018-04-26 A13.

3. <Ϻ> 2018-04-09 B9.

4. <Ѱܷ> 2018-04-17.

5. JTBC 2018-05-03 8 .

6. www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2015/apr/02/how-robots-algorithms-are-taking-over

7. , “ѹݵ ߴ뺯, ߱”. Ӻ 46016. 2013-06-29( 2006-12-06ڷ ۼ, Ϳ ) Ȥ ߸ 迡  ޳ Ű 448~457 . (ǰ. ٿ 2012. ߾ӵ ISBN 9788996686187. Moshe Lewin, Le Siecle Sovietique (Fayard, 2003).

8. <Ϻ> 2018-04-06 14.

9. www.tandfonline.org/doi/full/10.1080/ "Nuclear Notebook: A History of US Nuclear Weapons in South Korea", Hans. M. Kristensen and Robert S. Norris.

10. Ȳ, õ߷. 54~59. 71. ( , 2008).

11. , “ѹ 70: 108 ݼȸǷ”. Ӻ 51177. 2016-11-08 .

12. <ڹ 󱳽> н, ȭ . Ӻ 43354 2012-07-16. youtube.com ˻ؼ û .

13. <Ѱܷ> 2018-02-07.

14. <Ѱܷ> 2018-04-03 ׸ 2018-04-11.

15. ߸ 迡  Ű , 99~104. Ʃ꿡 νŸ Why Socialism ׸ ѱȸ 1-2-3.

16. Rodney Livingstone , Early Writings, 322~333. 361. (Vintage Books, 1975).

17. Lucien Seve, Alienation et Emancipation, 7~90. (La Dispute, 2012).

18. David Rowe and Rowe Schulmann, eds., Einstein on Politics, 413. ( Ǻ, 2005).

19. Alice Calaprice , The New Quotable Einstein, 299~301.

20. ý , ݿȭ , 57~58. ( 2005).

21. , ȣ缳, 168~171, 90. (, “츮 鼱 14, 2011).

22. Ƹ , ȫ , 240~243, 17~23, 138~149. (, “츮 鼱 04, 2006). , ε ι, 148~166. (â, 2008).

23. Einstein, Albert(1949), "L'opportunisme philosophique du savant". Jacques Merleau-Ponty et Etienne Balibar eds, Oeuvres Chioisies de Albert Einstein. Tome 5: Science, Ethique, Philosophie. 164. Paris: Seuil et CNRS. 1991.

24. "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts", å, 280.

25. Selsam, Howard and Martel, Harry (1977), "Appendix 2: Lenin's Philosophical Notebooks", eds., Reader in Marxist Philosophy, 325~328.

26. Thomas McFarlane ed., Einstein and Buddha, 50. (Ulysses Press, 2002).

27. Jason Barker, “Happy Birthday, Karl Marx. You Were Right!”. www.nytimes.com/2018/04/30/opinion/karl-marx-at-200-influence.html

28. The New Quotable Einstein, 143, 198.

29. John B.Foster, "The Epochal Crisis", Monthly Review, Vol 65, N0 5, 1~12. (2013, Oct.).

30. , “ƿ 鸶տ”, ⼼ ſ ߱ ð, 1, 500~507. (, 1994).

31. Albert Einstein, "Religion and Science", Ideas and Opinions, 36~40. (Crown Publishers, 1954, 1982).

32. < > “Ʈ νŸ”. Ӻ, 47065, 2013-11-30 .

33. <Ѱܷ>, 2018-04-24. 12.

34. ű, ŸŸ, 34. (̷, 2002).

35. ؽ, ߼1985-10-26, 569. (߰, 2003). , “: ؽ ”, , 2003 ȣ . Ӻ ߷: ؽ ϴ”, 43786(2012-09-01)-43832(2012-09-08)-43892(2012-09-15) . ߸ 迡 Dz޳ Ű 80~91.

36. Armand Mettelart, La Globalisation de la Surveillance: Aux Origines de L'ordre securitaire, 72~75. (La Decouverte, 2007).

37. <Ѱܷ>, 2018-01-24. 21.

38. http://futureoflife.org/2018/04/04/ai-and-robotics-researchers-boycott-kaist/

39. Au-dela des dogmes, 32. (Albin Michel, 1994).

40. prolcenter.wordpress.com/2011/12/18/man-of-la-mancha-2.

 

: Ӻ , ϴܿ ִ ˻ ϰ Ŭϸ ۵ Ǹ ֽϴ. Ǵ Ʃ꿡 , ̸ ϸ ٷ ֽϴ.